Booster cell signal: Best Cell Phone Signal Boosters

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How a Signal Booster Works

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Outdoor AntennaPulls in Tower Signal


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Outside Signal Is Important

Signal boosters work best when signal outside your house is strong.

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Perfect for apartments. The outside antenna has no need of a roof installation and is non-invasive. The desktop antenna is directional and works great for one large room.

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Check out this video to learn more about how cell phone signal boosters work.

weBoost Cell Phone Signal Booster for Home Information

What are weBoost Cell Phone Signal Boosters for Home?

weBoost signal boosters for home boost cellular signal for all US carriers and all devices, have no recurring fees, require no WiFi, are kitted with simple installation in mind, and are a great way to improve weak voice, text and 4G LTE data signals in a small and large homes and apartments. Every weBoost signal booster comes with all you need to get better signal straight out of the box.

How Do weBoost Cell Phone Boosters for Home Work?

A weBoost home cell phone booster works by taking existing signal with its outdoor antenna, boosting it via the amplifier, and rebroadcasting it via its indoor antenna within a confined space. These can be essential for homes with no cell signal inside and weak or moderately usable cell signals outside or nearby. Any home with a weak cell signal can benefit from a powerful weBoost signal booster to improve cell signals inside the home for all carriers, all cell phones and devices, and with absolutely no recurring fees after purchase.

What Variables Determine a weBoost Cell Phone Booster’s Performance?

Picking the Best weBoost Cell Signal Booster for Home

Knowing the strength of your outside signal can save a lot of time and money when picking a cell phone signal booster for your home. If you have a strong outside signal, you will be able to get more out of a signal booster system. If you have weak outside signal, you will want to prioritize system power to cover as much area as you can.

How to Get Better Cell Signals for AT&T, Verizon, and T-Mobile in a Home

What Causes Dropped Calls and Bad Cell Reception?

When Should I Get a weBoost Signal Booster Bundle?


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Complete Guide to Home Signal Boosters for Cell Phones


It can be a challenge to find the right cell phone signal booster for your home. Powerful Signal is here to help you—here’s what you need to know to make the right decision.

Do I

need a home cell phone signal booster?

There are several reasons why you might need a cell signal booster in your home.

  • The most common reason is to improve cellular voice and data in a home that suffers from frequent dropped or missed calls, inability to make calls, and slow or intermittent cellular data.
  • You may get acceptable signal in your home, but you want to provide better signal for friends and family members who use different cellular carriers and who don’t get acceptable cellular reception in your home. (For example, you get good service with AT&T, but your daughter who lives with you doesn’t get adequate service from T-Mobile in your area.)
  • A strong cell signal in your home will reduce your cell phone’s battery consumption. Cell phones have to use more power to connect to weaker, more distant cell towers.

What will a home cell phone booster do for me?

Stronger cell signal in your home can:

  • Improve cellular reception throughout your home or in specific problem areas.
  • Improve your call quality and eliminate dropped calls and delayed text messages.
  • Increase your data speed for faster email, web browsing, and smartphone app use.
  • Reduce your phone’s battery consumption.

How does a cell phone booster work?

There are four main components in a home cell signal booster system:

  1. A cell signal booster
  2. An outside donor antenna
  3. An inside broadcast antenna
  4. Coax cables that connect the antennas to the booster

Let’s examine each component and what it does:


The cell signal booster

The weBoost Home Complete cell signal booster for large homes.

The cell signal booster is the heart of the system. It’s a bidirectional (two-way) amplifier that receives, amplifies, and transmits signal to and from cell towers (outside) and to and from cell phones (inside).

Different booster models provide different levels of power to cover homes of different sizes. As booster models increase in power and indoor coverage area, they generally go up in price: The weaker the available outside signal and/or the more area you need to cover inside your home, the more powerful the booster needs to be and the higher the price you can expect pay for one.

See examples of boosters for small and midsized homes and boosters for large homes.

Most cell signal boosters have two ports for connecting coax cables: One port runs to an outside antenna and the other runs to an inside antenna.

The booster’s power supply plugs into a standard 120-volt AC outlet. The booster is the only component of the system that requires electrical power.

The cellular booster will have LED lights, an LCD display, or a smartphone app that tells you how it’s performing and if there are any problems that need to be addressed.

2. The outside donor antenna

Directional (left) and omnidirectional (right) outside antennas

The donor antenna sends and receives signal to and from the cell tower. (See examples of outdoor donor antennas.)

You’ll usually mount the donor antenna on your roof, high enough so that it has an unobstructed line of sight to one or more cell phone towers. You can also mount this antenna on a pole or tower next to your home.

The donor antenna connects to the outside port on the cell signal booster via a run of coax cable. You can bring the cable into the house through a vent, another existing opening, or a penetration point that you create.

There are two types of donor antennas:

  • A directional antenna (an LPDA, a Yagi, or a panel) points at a specific cell tower. A directional antenna is your best option if you only need to amplify the signal from one cellular carrier and you have a good line of sight to the cell tower, without hills, trees, buildings, and other obstacles between the tower and your home. Directional antennas provide higher signal gain with less noise, so they work best when outside signal is very weak or when signal from your carrier’s distant tower is being drowned out by signal from another carrier’s tower that’s close to your house.
  • An omnidirectional antenna is able to send and receive signal to and from all cell towers within a 360° field of view. Omni donor antennas work best when you don’t have a direct line of sight to a cell tower or you want to amplify cell signal for multiple carriers that have towers off in different directions. Omni antennas don’t need to be tuned (adjusted until they receive the strongest signal), so they are easier and faster to set up than directional antennas; however, they don’t have as much gain and often have more noise than directional antennas.

For more help choosing the right exterior antenna, see our Knowledge Base article, “Should I use a directional or omnidirectional outside antenna?”

3. The inside broadcast antenna

Top Signal EDGE dome (left) and EDGE panel (right) antennas have high gain, multiple mounting options, and a modern design aesthetic.

The broadcast antenna sends and receives signal to and from cell phones and other cellular devices inside your home. (See examples of indoor broadcast antennas.)

The broadcast antenna connects to the inside port on the cell signal booster via a run of coax cable.

The broadcast distance of the inside antenna depends on the antenna design, the power output of the booster, your home’s construction materials, the type and length of the coax cables, and if you split the signal from the booster to multiple broadcast antennas.

There are two types of indoor antennas. The layout of your home usually determines which type of antenna will give you the best coverage.

  • A directional panel antenna broadcasts signal in a pattern shaped like a teardrop. You’ll point the front of the panel antenna toward the area of the house where you need amplified cellular signal. Panel antennas are usually mounted on walls, facing forward, although they may be mounted facing downward in some situations. Panel antennas work best when you don’t have access above the ceiling to mount a dome antenna or if you have a long, narrow area in your home where you need improved signal.
  • An omnidirectional dome antenna broadcasts signal in 360° circle, similar to the shape of a donut or an inner tube. Dome antennas are usually mounted in the ceiling at the center of the area where you need cellular coverage from the booster. They may be mounted above or below drywall or drop ceilings. Dome antennas are popular and practical; they are used in most commercial buildings and also work well in a home that has an attic or other above-ceiling access.


Coax cables

A cell signal booster system uses coaxial cables (often just called “coax”) to connect the outside and inside antennas to the cell signal booster.

There are many types of coax used with cellular boosters. Generally speaking, the longer the length of a cable or the thinner its diameter, the more signal loss (attenuation ) there will be between the booster to the antenna. Higher cellular frequencies also have more signal loss over a given length of cable than lower cellular frequencies. Because of this, the rule of thumb is to use the shortest run of cable you need to get from the booster to the antenna. When possible, avoid having excess cable in your system.

You may need to pull cable through your home’s walls to get to the antennas. There are many YouTube videos that demonostrate how to do that; you can also get help from a satellite TV installer, electrician, or handyman.

There are two types of coax cable used with most home cellular booster systems:

RG6 coax cable

  • RG6 coax is used with 75-ohm booster systems in smaller homes.

    You’re probably familiar with RG6: It’s the same type of coax that connects cable and satellite boxes to TV sets. RG6 is just over ¼″ (6.9 mm) in diameter and is terminated with 7⁄16″ (11 mm) F-male connectors.

    Because of its higher attenuation (signal loss) per foot compared to other types of coax, RG6 should be used only for short runs in cellular booster systems—usually no longer than 30 feet.

    RG6 coax cable is used with 75-ohm boosters like the weBoost Home MultiRoom. 50‑ohm boosters in this class, like the HiBoost Home 10K, use 200-type coax with N connectors, which has performance characteristics similar to RG6.

400 coax cable

  • 400-type coax is used with 50‑ohm booster systems in larger homes.

    At 2⁄5″ (10.3 mm) in diameter, 400 coax is thicker than RG6. (Its 0.400″ diameter is where it gets its name.) Its thickness makes it more rigid, which means it’s harder to run around tight corners and to conceal from view. It’s terminated with 4⁄5″ (2 cm) N-male connectors that are are sturdier than the F connectors used with RG6 coax.

    The advantage of 400 coax is its performance: It has less than half the attenuation (signal loss) per foot of RG6. Because of its lower attenuation, 400 coax is used with large-home booster systems and in commercial buildings that require cable runs of 50 to 100 feet.

    400 coax cable is used by 50‑ohm home boosters like the Nextivity CEL-FI GO G32 Stationary, SureCall Fusion5s, and HiBoost Home SLT. It’s also used with 50‑ohm commercial boosters that are sometimes installed in large homes, including the weBoost Office 100, weBoost Office 200, HiBoost SLT, and SureCall Fusion5X.

    75-ohm boosters in this class, like the weBoost Home Complete, use RG11 coax with F connectors that’s similar in size and performance to 400 coax.

Will a cell phone signal booster work in

my home?

Cell signal boosters have been available for many years and the technology is mature and reliable, so the answer to this question is probably.

There are certain conditions in which a booster will not  work, such as:

  • There is no cellular signal in your area. A cell phone booster can’t amplify signal if there’s no signal to amplify.
  • The cellular amplifier doesn’t have enough power for the size of your house. If you expect to fill a 3,000-square-foot home with a usable cell signal, you’ll need a cell signal booster that’s designed to cover that much area. Be sure that your coverage expectations line up with the specifications of the system you buy.
  • The amplifier boosts the wrong frequencies. Make certain that the booster you purchase amplifies the frequencies your carrier is using in your area. For example, currently there are no consumer boosters that amplify AT&T’s band 30 (2300 MHz) or T-Mobile’s band 71 (600 MHz). (See this table to find out which frequencies are amplified by cellular boosters.)

Purchasing the right booster for your home’s size and shape and the type and strength of available cellular signal is the most important factor in successfully fixing your home’s cellular signal problem. Call Powerful Signal—we can help you find the booster system that’s best suited for your needs.

Should I buy a 3G signal booster?

Until around , all cell signal boosters were dual-band units that amplified the two bands of cellular frequency used by 3G networks (bands 2 and 5).

When 4G networks started becoming widespread, manufacturers began producing five-band systems that amplified the wider set of frequencies used by 4G LTE networks (bands 12/17, 13, 4, and 2/25). These frequencies will continue to be used by new 5G networks.

The major cellular carriers shut off 3G service nationwide in 2022. Because 3G is no longer available in most areas, we strongly recommend that you do not purchase a dual-band 3G signal booster. A 3G booster won’t amplify 4G or 5G frequencies.

To learn more, see our web page about cellular frequency bands.

Will 4G boosters work with 5G networks?

4G boosters will amplify existing 4G frequencies that are converted to 5G.

The FCC has not given blanket approval for boosters to be used on new 5G-only frequencies. As of right now, 5G-specific boosters are not available to consumers.

To learn more, see our web page, “What Is 5G? Are Cell Phone Boosters 5G-ready?”

…or click here to contact us online. We can help you find the right cell phone signal booster system for your house, condo, apartment, or other residence.


Revaccination: what and who needs a booster vaccination

With the advent of Omicron, doctors again began to actively talk about the need for revaccination – a “boosting” (booster) vaccination is needed to boost the immune system to actively produce antibodies to the coronavirus again, strengthen protection against the strain “delta”, and from “omicron”. While virologists are figuring out how dangerous the new SARS-CoV-2 variant that arrived from Africa is, infectious disease specialists insist: it’s better not to wait and “get vaccinated”. To whom, when and what vaccine? Experts from RG-Week dealt with this.

When should I get a booster shot?

Everyone’s immune response to COVID-19 vaccination is different. On average, as the observation of vaccinated and recovering patients showed, the term of antibody protection after vaccination or COVID-19 is six months, then the level of antibodies begins to decline, – explained Alexander Gintsburg, head of the Gamaleya Center. Therefore, with the advent of new variants of the virus – “delta”, and now “omicron” – it is better to maintain a high level of antibodies.

Of course, there is also a second tier of protection – long-term T-cell immunity, the so-called “memory cells”. That is why it is enough to get vaccinated against some infections (for example, measles) once in childhood – and immunity is maintained for life. This is not the case with the coronavirus: they are infected twice and thrice. Although long-term immunity can reduce the consequences of a repeated attack of the virus: most of those vaccinated are not seriously ill (although there are exceptions).

While the epidemic continues, the recommendations of the Russian Ministry of Health are as follows: a booster vaccination should be carried out six months after the primary vaccination. Earlier, by the way, it will not work – this is not allowed by the registration system, “thrown” data when you try to enter. Therefore, there is no need to hurry – so that later there will be no difficulties with the certificate.

In the future, when the epidemiological situation finally normalizes, it will be necessary to get vaccinated against COVID-19 once a year (just like against the flu), explained Minister of Health Mikhail Murashko.

How will the new QR code work?

Last week, a decision was made that equalized the duration of the validity of the QR code of the vaccinated and those who recovered from the disease: now it is valid for both of them for a year. So there is some discrepancy in the recommendations: the second vaccination is six months after the first, although the QR will be valid for a whole year. It turns out that the booster is carried out solely at the request of a person, there are no levers of pressure here.

At the same time, as explained to “RG” – Week in the Ministry of Health, after revaccination, the old QR code is automatically replaced with a new current one. Also valid for one year.

Who needs to do it?

In Russia, all adults are revaccinated, with the exception of those who are exempted from vaccination. The situation is different in other countries. For example, in Israel, universal revaccination was announced back in September, canceling green passes received after the first vaccination. In most countries, including the US and the EU, until recently it was recommended to revaccinate people at risk – the elderly, chronically at risk of severe COVID-19, physicians. But with the advent of omicron, the situation changed: on December 2, US President Joe Biden announced a new plan to combat the pandemic, including “expanding Americans’ access to booster vaccines. ” The EU also announced the need to make a booster six months after the primary vaccination.

Experts hope that revaccination will protect against both delta and omicron.

As far as our country is concerned, the half-year gap between the recommended booster vaccination period and the validity of the QR code received after the primary vaccination allows a person to decide for himself when exactly to give a booster shot. Moreover, many people have been ill with COVID-19 asymptomatically or easily, without going to the doctors. They are not in the federal register, and they must regulate their situation themselves. Some experts, for example, Vitaly Zverev, scientific director of the Mechnikov Research Institute of Vaccines and Serums, believe that if a person has a high antibody titer, he should postpone revaccination.

What vaccine should I use for booster?

Rospotrebnadzor “RG” – Nedelya was informed that “you can revaccinate with any vaccine registered in Russia. ” Most often, people vaccinated with Sputnik V are offered Sputnik Light (in fact, this is the first component of the full Sputnik). Alexander Gunzburg has repeatedly presented evidence that this option is effective. And RDIF recently reported that Sputnik Light was registered for use as a booster in several countries, including the UAE, after all types of vaccines.

Vaccine combinations can therefore be very different. The other day, Rospotrebnadzor reported that another batch of EpiVacCorona was sent to the regions – in the amount of 1.2 million doses. So in many cases there will be a choice for revaccination.

According to Vitaliy Zverev, it is better to choose for revaccination not the same type of vaccine that was used for primary vaccination, but another type. Why is this so, “RG” – Andrey Pozdnyakov, an infectious disease specialist, head of the Invitro-Siberia medical laboratory, explained to Week. “When you are vaccinated with one vaccine and revaccinated with another, you get different antigens, the immune system trains on such a variety, and the result is a more versatile and possibly stronger immune response,” Pozdnyakov believes. “There are enough publications that it is good to vaccinate and revaccinate using different types of vaccines, although, of course, one type is acceptable, and there are no problems.

Do I need to measure antibodies before revaccination?

The Ministry of Health says there is no need to measure antibodies. However, some experts believe that if their level remains high (several times higher than the reference value, which is indicated in the test results), then the vaccine can wait. Sometimes it is recommended to take a PCR test before vaccination – to make sure that a person does not fall into the latent period of infection.

Gunzburg believes that if a person has a high level of antibodies during revaccination, there is nothing to worry about. The Director of the Center for the Global Virological Network, WHO Advisor Konstantin Chumakov agrees with this. “It won’t hurt to get vaccinated again, without taking into account the level of antibodies, because this will increase the number of antibodies and improve their quality. That is, antibodies will be able to protect not only from the strain on which the vaccine was made, but also from all other options, immunity becomes wider. This is the main advantage of revaccination, this booster dose, “Chumakov explained in an interview. “In general, my advice, if you are afraid for your health, if you are an elderly person, if you have any problems with immunity, do not refuse revaccination, it will not get worse,” Chumakov concluded. they fell low, then this is a wake-up call and you should hurry up and get vaccinated again. If your antibodies are at a good level, then there is no rush.”

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Insurers explained what to do to patients if they are offered a PCR test before hospitalization on a paid basis The chief infectious disease specialist recalled the risk of double infection with coronavirus and influenza


Coronavirus: how effective is the first dose of the vaccine and should the second be postponed?

  • Zaria Gorvette
  • BBC Future

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Image copyright, Getty Images

Image caption

Covid-19 vaccination strategies are highly debated

Producing enough of each vaccine will take time, which is why some countries – notably the UK – have decided to delay the second dose . ‘Consider nothing happened’, experts advise on how to behave after a single dose of any of the Covid-19 vaccines. And that’s why.

When 85-year-old Colin Horsman was admitted to the Doncaster hospital in late December, doctors suspected he had a kidney infection.

But soon after that, he contracted Covid-19 – at that time, about one in four people who were in the hospital with this virus caught it there.

Horsman developed severe symptoms and was eventually placed on a ventilator. A few days later he died.

Horsman’s case may seem rather typical, but no less tragic for that.

At the time of this writing, more than 90,000 people have died from coronavirus in the UK alone.

But, as Colin Horsman’s son recently explained to a local newspaper, less than three weeks before his illness, his father became one of the first people in the world to receive an initial dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 vaccine.

He was due to receive a second dose two days before he died.

  • Coronavirus vaccine. Questions to be answered
  • Coronavirus: has vaccination affected the statistics? Map and table by country

Need a booster

In fact, most vaccines require booster doses to maintain their effectiveness.

Take, for example, the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, known as MMR, which is given to infants around the world to prevent these childhood infections.

About 40% of people who receive only one dose are not protected against all three viruses, compared with 4% of those who receive a second dose.

People in the first group are four times more likely to contract measles than people in the second group. Outbreaks have been observed in places where a significant proportion of people have not completed full MMR vaccination.

“The reason people think boosters are vital is because they kind of put you in a whole different mode of fine-tuning your body’s immune response,” says Danny Altmann, professor of immunology at Imperial College London.

How vaccine boosters work

When the immune system first encounters a vaccine, it activates two important types of white blood cells. First of all, these are plasma B cells, which are primarily involved in the production of antibodies.

Unfortunately, this cell type is short-lived, so while your body can fill up with antibodies in just a few weeks, without a second injection, it often comes with a rapid decline in numbers.

Image copyright, Getty Images

Image caption,

The task of T cells is to detect and destroy the pathogen

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The second type are T cells, each specifically designed to identify a specific pathogen and kill it.

Some of these, memory T cells, can stay in the body for decades before hitting their target, meaning that immunity from vaccines or infections can sometimes last a lifetime.

But there is one important point. As a rule, the number of cells of this type before the second encounter with infection in your body will be small.

A booster dose is a way to re-expose the body to antigens (pathogen molecules that trigger the immune system) to initiate the second part of the immune response.

“So you’ve started the process,” says Oltmann. “Now once you get the booster, you’ll have more memory T cells. To a certain extent, that’s true of the number of memory B cells in your body. They’re also produce better antibodies.”

Upon repeated exposure to the same vaccine or pathogen, the remaining B cells are able to divide rapidly, resulting in a re-increase in circulating antibodies.

Image copyright, Getty Images

Image caption,

Producing enough of each vaccine will take time, which is why some countries – notably the UK – have decided to delay the second dose

The second dose also triggers “B-cell maturation” , which involves the selection of young cells with the best receptors to capture a particular pathogen.

This happens when they are still in the bone marrow where white blood cells are formed and then go to the spleen to complete their development.

This means that subsequently B cells will not only become more numerous, but the antibodies produced by them will be more effective.

Memory T cells also proliferate rapidly. They are believed to have played a critical role during the current pandemic by protecting some people from developing severe Covid-19..

While the virus may have been circulating around the world since December 2019, there is evidence that memory T cells could previously “see” other coronaviruses, such as those that cause the common cold, allowing them to now recognize Covid-19.

So, how effective is a single dose of each of the Covid-19 vaccines?

With the UK government deciding to delay the second dose of all currently approved Covid-19 vaccines from 3-4 weeks to 12 weeks, and Russia trialing a single-dose Sputnik V vaccine regimen called Sputnik-Light The answer to this question is extremely important and extremely difficult. Here’s what we know so far.


According to Pfizer data released in December 2020, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is approximately 52% effective after the first dose.

Image copyright, Getty Images

Photo caption,

The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is said to be about 52% effective after the first dose

doses 21 days apart or placebo) who had no evidence of infection in 82 people in the placebo group and 39people in the vaccine group developed symptoms of Covid-19.

However, this early defense comes with some important caveats. First, the protection does not work until at least the 12th day – no difference was observed between the two groups up to this point.

Second, one dose is still significantly less effective than two. A double dose in a week reaches an effectiveness of 95% in the prevention of the disease.

But there is another figure that has been circulating on the internet and, surprisingly, some doctors have even told patients about it: it is the assumption that the first dose is about 9 times effective.0%. And this is where things get a little more complicated.

A similar assessment came from the British Vaccine Committee, JCVI, which decided to calculate vaccine efficacy differently. Instead of using all the data on the number of infections, including those for the first days before the first dose had started to work, they only looked at data from days 15 to 21.

Using this method, the effectiveness of the vaccine increases to 89% because it is not affected by a relatively large number of infections before the vaccine takes effect.

Going even further and considering only the first seven days after the second dose (days 21-28) – because the second dose may not have worked by then – the efficacy is 92%.

However, these calculations are at least disputable.

“People are now looking closely at the graphs in a Pfizer article published in the New England Journal of Medicine, which shows that some benefit should be noticeable as early as day 14,” says Oltmann. “This is the case when the curves for the placebo group and the vaccine group, they completely diverge, and cases start to rise in the placebo group. But obviously this is not a direct measurement of the immune response – it is a rather rough estimate of the number of people infected. ”

Oltmann says he would not advise anyone to consider themselves safe 14 days after the first dose of the vaccine. “The schedule is just a way of saying ‘something’ is happening,” he said. and less effective than Pfizer thought.Nachman Esh, the Israeli government’s coronavirus coordinator, said those who received a second dose of Pfizer’s vaccine had a 6- to 12-fold increase in antibody levels compared to those who received only one dose.


Things are a little different for the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine.

In an article published in January, the authors explain that the vaccine provides 64.1% protection after at least one standard dose.

This figure compares with 70.4% if you took two full doses, or, oddly enough, with 90% for those who got half a dose and then one full dose.

Image copyright, Getty Images

Image caption,

The Ebola vaccine is the only one that uses the same technology as Russia’s and Oxford-AstraZeneca’s Covid-19 vaccine

Meanwhile, based on unpublished data provided to the Vaccine Committee, it has been estimated that between three and 9-12 weeks after the first injection, the vaccine prevents about 70% of cases of serious covid.

Since the third phase of the study included two breaks between the first and second doses – including one of six weeks and a longer one of 12 weeks – it is more certain that the first dose may continue to provide some protection for at least for several months before receiving the booster.


According to the company’s filing with the FDA, a single dose of Moderna vaccine can provide 80. 2% protection compared to 95.6% after a second dose (in people aged 18 to 65 years, and 86.4% for those over 65).

As with the Pfizer vaccine, all participants in the third phase of the trial received two doses of the vaccine or a placebo within the same set period of time – in this case 28 days – so it is not yet known whether immunity from one dose of the vaccine will continue or decline .


The CoronaVac vaccine was developed by Sinovac, a biopharmaceutical company based in Beijing. This vaccine is unusual because it has been tested independently in several countries, all with different results.

The UAE was the first country to rate its effectiveness at 86%. According to Turkish researchers, the vaccine provides 91.25% protection, while Indonesian scientists said it was 65.3% effective, and Brazil’s Butantan Institute in São Paulo recently announced that the vaccine prevents symptoms from developing in 50 . 4% of people.

To date, no data has been published on the effectiveness of a single dose – these figures only refer to two doses separated by 14 days.

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The CoronaVac vaccine has been tested in several countries, all with varying results

The results were viewed with some skepticism because they were published in press releases rather than in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, as it is accepted in the scientific community.

Without access to additional information about test methods and data collected, it is more difficult for scientists to independently assess the validity of results.

Sputnik V

The Sputnik V vaccine was developed by the Gamaleya Moscow National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology.

As with the others, this vaccine is given in two doses and appears to be 91.4% effective after the second dose – there is currently no publicly available information on the effectiveness of just one dose.

Again, these results have not been published in a peer-reviewed journal and may therefore be unreliable. Despite the skyrocketing number of Covid-19 cases in the country, many Russians are suspicious of the safety and effectiveness of this vaccine.

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In the first week after the launch of the Russian Sputnik V vaccine in December, there were no queues for vaccinations at clinics

In the first week of vaccination last December, clinic waiting rooms were half empty.

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Most recently, the Russian government announced the development of a new version of Sputnik-Light as a temporary solution to the shortage of the original vaccine.

The vaccine will be given as a single dose, although it is not yet clear how effective it will be.

Can I change my habits after taking the first dose?

“I would act exactly as if I had not yet been vaccinated,” says Oltmann. “I would never let my guard down.”

Deborah Dunn-Walters, professor of immunology at the University of Surrey, is just as unambiguous about how to behave.

“There are several reasons for this,” she warns.

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Most Covid-19 vaccines developed target the spike protein on the surface of the virus

Dunn-Walters explains that the effectiveness of vaccines was largely measured by whether they prevented people from developing symptoms, not by actually contracting the virus.

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“And we know that the infection can be asymptomatic,” she recalls.

So far, there is no evidence that one dose – or even two – of any of the existing vaccines will stop the transmission of the virus to other people.

Can I skip the second dose of the vaccine?

“Preclinical testing has shown that immunity after one shot is not enough, so two doses are needed,” says Dunn-Walters.

Also during the third phase of the trial, there were more antibodies and T cells in the blood after two doses than after one.

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Immunity can take weeks to appear, so no Covid-19 vaccine can protect you immediately

In December, Pfizer CEO Albert Burla explained that it would be a big mistake to miss the second dose because it almost doubles the degree of protection.

Pfizer and BioNTech also called for caution on the grounds that “there is no data to demonstrate that protection after the first dose is maintained after 21 days.

It is possible that the protection provided by the first dose will suddenly disappear after this time. This is not surprising given how the immune system normally works.

Reliably estimating how long protection from a single dose might last is further complicated by the fact that all currently approved Covid-19 vaccines use completely new technology.

The Oxford-AstraZeneca and Sputnik V vaccines contain modified versions of adenoviruses, a group of viruses that can invade many cell types and cause a range of illnesses, such as respiratory infections.

While the Oxford version uses a chimpanzee adenovirus, the Russian version uses a mixture of two human types.

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    Although adenoviruses have been used in cancer vaccines and gene therapy for many years, they have only been used once to prevent viral infection – an Ebola vaccine using this method was approved for use in the US in December 2019.

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    It is not yet clear how long the partial protection provided by a single dose of any Covid-19 vaccine lasts

    The Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech versions may be even more innovative. Both contain countless tiny pieces of mRNA (messenger RNA) that, like the adenovirus-based vaccine, “calculate” a spike protein from the surface of Covid-19.

    These are the only mRNA vaccines ever approved for use in humans, and their efficacy simply cannot be compared.

    Ronald Corley, a professor of microbiology at Boston University, recently explained in an interview with a university magazine that there is still a lot of confusion about these vaccines. For example, it is not clear whether they will work equally well for people of all ages and races, or how long immunity will last.

    CoronaVac contains deactivated coronavirus particles. This method is not new – the concept of using dead pathogens in vaccines has been around since the late 19century.

    However, it remains unclear how long such immunity will last, since no vaccine derived from members of this family of viruses was ever approved for use before the pandemic.

    It takes time for immunity to develop

    For the first two weeks of immunity against the virus, you will have no more than before taking it.

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    Vaccines take time to protect against disease

    “There’s a part of the immune system called ‘innate immunity’ that reacts immediately,” says Dunn-Walters.

    It includes physical barriers to infection, such as the skin, as well as certain types of white blood cells and chemical signals.

    But the expert explains that this alone usually cannot prevent the disease – and vaccines do not affect this.

    “Accordingly, you also need adaptive immunity. However, the problem with adaptive immunity is that, as the name suggests, it adapts to individual threats from pathogens,” continues Dunn-Walters.